The Mediterranean region is nowadays facing significant energy challenges. It is home to an increasing population of over 500 million inhabitants with growing energy demands. According to the Observatoire Méditerranéen de l’Énergie (OME), per capita energy demand is estimated to increase by 62% in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries by 2040 (taking 2018 as reference year). The Mediterranean region is also experiencing an intensive industrialization and tourism growth that is also putting pressure on the available energy resources. On top of that, the average rise of temperature by 1.5°C, compared to pre-industrial levels – the lower limit not to be surpassed as agreed through the Paris Agreement – is already being exceeded in the Mediterranean region, according to IPCC’s Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C.